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Definition of conquistador. First Known Use of conquistador , in the meaning defined above. History and Etymology for conquistador Spanish, ultimately from Latin conquirere — see conquer.
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Later they were enslaved for a few years by various Native American tribes of the upper Gulf Coast. They continued through Coahuila and Nueva Vizcaya ; then down the Gulf of California coast to what is now Sinaloa , Mexico, over a period of roughly eight years.
They spent years enslaved by the Ananarivo of the Louisiana Gulf Islands. Later they were enslaved by the Hans , the Capoques and others.
In they escaped into the American interior, contacting other Native American tribes along the way. In , Estevanico was one of four men who accompanied Marcos de Niza as a guide in search of the fabled Seven Cities of Cibola , preceding Coronado.
When the others were struck ill, Estevanico continued alone, opening up what is now New Mexico and Arizona. He was killed at the Zuni village of Hawikuh in present-day New Mexico.
The viceroy of New Spain Antonio de Mendoza , for whom is named the Codex Mendoza , commissioned several expeditions to explore and establish settlements in the northern lands of New Spain in — After unsuccessfully attempting to descend to the river, they left the area, defeated by the difficult terrain and torrid weather.
In , expeditions under Hernando de Alarcon and Melchior Diaz visited the area of Yuma and immediately saw the natural crossing of the Colorado River from Mexico to California by land as an ideal spot for a city, as the Colorado River narrows to slightly under feet wide in one small point.
Augustine Spanish Florida , is the first known and recorded Christian marriage anywhere in the continental United States.
They explored a part of the route visited by Coronado in New Mexico and other parts in the southwestern United States between and From to Francis Xavier worked in Maluku among the peoples of Ambon Island , Ternate , and Morotai , and laid the foundations for the Christian religion there.
He was the first governor-general of the Spanish East Indies. The Spanish settled and took control of Tidore in to trade spices and counter Dutch encroachment in the archipelago of Maluku.
The Spanish presence lasted until , when the settlers and military were moved back to the Philippines. Part of the Ternatean population chose to leave with the Spanish, settling near Manila in what later became the municipality of Ternate.
Since the arrival to Kagoshima Kyushu of a group of Jesuits with St. Francis Xavier missionary and Portuguese traders, Spain was interested in Japan.
As a seafaring people in the south-westernmost region of Europe, the Portuguese became natural leaders of exploration during the Middle Ages. Faced with the options of either accessing other European markets by sea, by exploiting its seafaring prowess, or by land, and facing the task of crossing Castile and Aragon territory, it is not surprising that goods were sent via the sea to England, Flanders , Italy and the Hanseatic league towns.
One important reason was the need for alternatives to the expensive eastern trade routes that followed the Silk Road. Those routes were dominated first by the republics of Venice and Genoa , and then by the Ottoman Empire after the conquest of Constantinople in The Ottomans barred European access.
For decades the Spanish Netherlands ports produced more revenue than the colonies since all goods brought from Spain, Mediterranean possessions, and the colonies were sold directly there to neighbouring European countries: wheat, olive oil, wine, silver, spice, wool and silk were big businesses.
The gold brought home from Guinea stimulated the commercial energy of the Portuguese, and its European neighbours, especially Spain.
Apart from their religious and scientific aspects, these voyages of discovery were highly profitable. They had benefited from Guinea's connections with neighbouring Iberians and north African Muslim states.
Due to these connections, mathematicians and experts in naval technology appeared in Portugal. Portuguese and foreign experts made several breakthroughs in the fields of mathematics, cartography and naval technology.
Portuguese explored the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans before the Iberian Union period — Although well received, he was forbidden to depart.
In , Vasco da Gama reached India. The Portuguese sailors sailed eastward to such places as Taiwan, Japan, and the island of Timor.
Several writers have also suggested the Portuguese were the first Europeans to discover Australia and New Zealand. Attracting settlers proved difficult; however, the Jewish settlement was a success and their descendants settled many parts of Brazil.
The Portuguese following the maritime trade routes of Muslims and Chinese traders, sailed the Indian Ocean. Da Gama in marked the beginning of Portuguese influence in Indian Ocean.
It initially became part of the Portuguese province of Arabia and Ethiopia and was administered by a governor general.
Around , Zanzibar became part of the western division of the Portuguese empire and was administered from Mozambique. The first English ship to visit Unguja, the Edward Bonaventure in , found that there was no Portuguese fort or garrison.
The extent of their occupation was a trade depot where produce was purchased and collected for shipment to Mozambique.
Portuguese were established supporting one Christian local dynasty ruling suitor. By Afonso I sent various of his children and nobles to Europe to study, including his son Henrique Kinu a Mvemba , who was elevated to the status of bishop in The aggregate of Portugal's colonial holdings in India were Portuguese India.
In a series of military conflicts, political manoeuvres and conquests, the Portuguese extended their control over the Sinhalese kingdoms , including Jaffna ,  Raigama , Sitawaka , and Kotte ,  but the aim of unifying the entire island under Portuguese control failed.
The invasion was a disaster for the Portuguese, with their entire army wiped out by Kandyan guerrilla warfare. More envoys were sent in to Ethiopia, after Socotra was taken by the Portuguese.
As a result of this mission, and facing Muslim expansion, regent queen Eleni of Ethiopia sent ambassador Mateus to king Manuel I of Portugal and to the Pope, in search of a coalition.
In , the Portuguese under Francisco de Almeida won a critical victory in the battle of Diu against a joint Mamluk and Arab fleet sent to counteract their presence in the Arabian Sea.
The retreat of the Mamluks and Arabs enabled the Portuguese to implement their strategy of controlling the Indian Ocean. Afonso de Albuquerque set sail in April from Goa to Malacca with a force of 1, men and seventeen or eighteen ships.
That same year, the Portuguese, desiring a commercial alliance, sent an ambassador, Duarte Fernandes , to the kingdom of Ayudhya , where he was well received by king Ramathibodi II.
Earlier expeditions by Diogo Dias and Afonso de Albuquerque had explored that part of the Indian Ocean, and discovered several islands new to Europeans.
Mascarenhas served as Captain-Major of the Portuguese colony of Malacca from to , and as viceroy of Goa, capital of the Portuguese possessions in Asia, from until his death in He was succeeded by Francisco Barreto , who served with the title of "governor-general".
To enforce a trade monopoly, Muscat , and Hormuz in the Persian Gulf , were seized by Afonso de Albuquerque in , and in and , respectively.
He also entered into diplomatic relations with Persia. In while trying to conquer Aden , an expedition led by Albuquerque cruised the Red Sea inside the Bab al-Mandab , and sheltered at Kamaran island.
In , the Portuguese were the first Europeans to reach the city of Guangzhou by the sea, and they settled on its port for a commercial monopoly of trade with other nations.
They were later expelled from their settlements, but they were allowed the use of Macau , which was also occupied in , and to be appointed in as the base for doing business with Guangzhou.
The quasi-monopoly on foreign trade in the region would be maintained by the Portuguese until the early seventeenth century, when the Spanish and Dutch arrived.
The Portuguese presence disrupted and reorganised the Southeast Asian trade, and in eastern Indonesia they introduced Christianity. There he established ties with the local ruler who was impressed with his martial skills.
The rulers of the competing island states of Ternate and Tidore also sought Portuguese assistance and the newcomers were welcomed in the area as buyers of supplies and spices during a lull in the regional trade due to the temporary disruption of Javanese and Malay sailings to the area following the conflict in Malacca.
The spice trade soon revived but the Portuguese would not be able to fully monopolize nor disrupt this trade.
Such an outpost far from Europe generally only attracted the most desperate and avaricious, and as such the feeble attempts at Christianization only strained relations with Ternate's Muslim ruler.
After being declared innocent of the charges against him he was sent back to reassume his throne, but died en route at Malacca in Following the murder of Sultan Hairun at the hands of the Europeans, the Ternateans expelled the hated foreigners in after a five-year siege.
The Portuguese first landed in Ambon in , but it only became the new centre for their activities in Maluku following the expulsion from Ternate.
European power in the region was weak and Ternate became an expanding, fiercely Islamic and anti-European state under the rule of Sultan Baab Ullah r.
Altogether, the Portuguese never had the resources or manpower to control the local trade in spices, and failed in attempts to establish their authority over the crucial Banda Islands, the nearby centre of most nutmeg and mace production.
Following Portuguese missionary work, there have been large Christian communities in eastern Indonesia particularly among the Ambonese.
Mauritius was visited by the Portuguese between by Diogo Fernandes Pereira and The Portuguese took no interest in the isolated Mascarene islands.
Their main African base was in Mozambique , and therefore the Portuguese navigators preferred to use the Mozambique Channel to go to India.
The Comoros at the north proved to be a more practical port of call. Based on the Treaty of Tordesillas , Manuel I claimed territorial rights in the area visited by John Cabot in and Accompanied by colonists from mainland Portugal and the Azores, he explored Newfoundland and Nova Scotia possibly reaching the Bay of Fundy on the Minas Basin  , and established a fishing colony on Cape Breton Island , that would last some years or until at least s, based on contemporary accounts.
The first settlement was founded in Some European countries, especially France, were also sending excursions to Brazil to extract brazilwood.
Worried about the foreign incursions and hoping to find mineral riches, the Portuguese crown decided to send large missions to take possession of the land and combat the French.
As time passed, the Portuguese created the Viceroyalty of Brazil. The Portuguese assimilated some of the native tribes  while others were enslaved or exterminated in long wars or by European diseases to which they had no immunity.
The Dutch sacked Bahia in , and temporarily captured the capital Salvador. In the s and s, the Dutch West India Company established many trade posts or colonies.
The Spanish silver fleet, which carried silver from Spanish colonies to Spain, were seized by Piet Heyn in In Suriname and Guyana were established.
He landed at Recife , the port of Pernambuco and the chief stronghold of the Dutch, in January In most of the inhabitants of the town Pernambuco Recife , in the future Dutch colony of Brazil were Sephardic Jews who had been banned by the Portuguese Inquisition to this town at the other side of the Atlantic Ocean.
As some years afterward the Dutch in Brazil appealed to Holland for craftsmen of all kinds, many Jews went to Brazil; about Jews left Amsterdam in , accompanied by two distinguished scholars — Isaac Aboab da Fonseca and Moses Raphael de Aguilar.
In the struggle between Holland and Portugal for the possession of Brazil the Dutch were supported by the Jews.
From to , the Dutch set up more permanently in the Nordeste and controlled a long stretch of the coast most accessible to Europe, without, however, penetrating the interior.
But the colonists of the Dutch West India Company in Brazil were in a constant state of siege, in spite of the presence in Recife of John Maurice of Nassau as governor.
After several years of open warfare, the Dutch formally withdrew in Portuguese sent military expeditions to the Amazon Rainforest and conquered British and Dutch strongholds,  founding villages and forts from Before the Iberian Union period — , Spain tried to prevent Portuguese expansion into Brazil with the Treaty of Tordesillas.
This was disputed in vain, and in Spain confirmed Portuguese sovereignty. The defeat of Abu Abdallah and the death of Portugal's king led to the end of the Portuguese Aviz dynasty and later to the integration of Portugal and its empire at the Iberian Union for 60 years under Sebastian's uncle Philip II of Spain.
Philip was married to his relative Mary I cousin of his father, due to this, Philip was King of England and Ireland  in a dynastic union with Spain.
The English-Spanish wars of — were clashes not only in English and Spanish ports or on the sea between them but also in and around the present-day territories of Florida, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, and Panama.
Even though the Portuguese were unable to capture the entire island of Ceylon, they were able to control its coastal regions for a considerable time.
From to mostly, the Bandeirantes in Brazil focused on slave hunting, then from to they focused on mineral wealth. Through these expeditions and the Dutch—Portuguese War , Colonial Brazil expanded from the small limits of the Tordesilhas Line to roughly the same borders as current Brazil.
In the 17th century, taking advantage of this period of Portuguese weakness, the Dutch occupied many Portuguese territories in Brazil.
He landed at Recife, the port of Pernambuco, in January The Dutch intrusion into Brazil was long lasting and troublesome to Portugal.
The large area of Bahia and its city, the strategically important Salvador, was recovered quickly by an Iberian military expedition in After the dissolution of the Iberian Union in , Portugal re-established authority over its lost territories including remaining Dutch controlled areas.
The other smaller, less developed areas were recovered in stages and relieved of Dutch piracy in the next two decades by local resistance and Portuguese expeditions.
Spanish Formosa was established in Taiwan, first by Portugal in and later renamed and repositioned by Spain in Keelung. It became a natural defence site for the Iberian Union.
The colony was designed to protect Spanish and Portuguese trade from interference by the Dutch base in the south of Taiwan.
The Spanish colony was short-lived due to the unwillingness of Spanish colonial authorities in Manila to defend it. While technological superiority, cultural factors and local allies played an important role in the victories of the conquistadors in the Americas, their conquest was greatly facilitated by old world diseases: smallpox , chicken pox , diphtheria , typhus , influenza , measles , malaria and yellow fever.
The diseases were carried to distant tribes and villages. This typical path of disease transmission moved much faster than the conquistadors, so that as they advanced, resistance weakened.
The American natives lacked immunity to these infections. When Francisco Coronado and the Spaniards first explored the Rio Grande Valley in , in modern New Mexico, some of the chieftains complained of new diseases that affected their tribes.
Cabeza de Vaca reported that in , when the Spanish landed in Texas, "half the natives died from a disease of the bowels and blamed us.
The first epidemic was recorded in and killed the emperor Huayna Capac , the father of Atahualpa. Further epidemics of smallpox broke out in , , and , as well as typhus in , influenza in , diphtheria in and measles in Recently developed tree-ring evidence shows that the illness which reduced the population in Aztec Mexico was aided by a great drought in the 16th century, and which continued through the arrival of the Spanish conquest.
The cocoliztli epidemic from to killed an estimated, additional 2 to 2. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.
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Want to learn more? Conquistadors and other European explorers did terrible things to native people so that they could get gold to take home.conquistador definition: 1. one of the Spanish people who travelled to America in the 16th century and took control of. Learn more. Conquistador Council, BSA - North Aspen Avenue - Roswell, NM - - Fax Folosim fișierele de tip cookie în diverse scopuri, inclusiv pentru prelucrarea datelor și marketing personalizat. Utilizând în continuare serviciul, sunteți de acord cu procedurile noastre, așa cum apar descrise în Politica de Confidențialitate. OK. Login or Register. Due to these connections, mathematicians and experts in naval technology appeared in Portugal. Archived from the original Dortmund Lazio 18 March The conquistador borrowed as little as possible, preferring to invest all their belongings. Sometimes, every soldier brought his own equipment and supplies, other times the soldiers received gear as an advance from the conquistador. The Pinzón brothers, seamen of the Tinto–Odiel participated in Columbus's undertaking. Procol Harum - (Conquistador) + Lyrics - Digitally Remastered Audio. Please Support this Great Band and purchase a copy of their music. SPECIAL NOTE: Di. The Conquestador Casino Bonus Offers We offer a wide range of promotions at Conquestador Casino, with the Welcome Bonus particularly appealing to players. The Conquestador Casino Welcome Bonus consists of a real cash offer on the first deposit which players registered at Conquestador Casino will find in their account as soon as they register. "Conquistador" is a song by the British psychedelic rock band Procol Harum. Written by Gary Brooker and Keith Reid, it originally appeared on the band's self-titled debut album. It was later released as a single from the band's live album Procol Harum Live: In Concert with the Edmonton Symphony Orchestra. Conquistador, (Spanish: “conqueror”) plural conquistadores or conquistadors, any of the leaders in the Spanish conquest of America, especially of Mexico and Peru, in the 16th century.